Quiz – Diabetes and Kidney

  1. What is Dawn phenomenon?
  2. What is Somogyi pheneomenon?
  3. What is Syndrome X?
  4. What are Kimmelsteil Wilson nodules?


  1. Gkucose levels rise early morning – Dawn phenomenon
  2. Rebound hyperglycemia may appear from 1/2 to 24 hours after moderate to sevre hyoglycemia – Somogyi pheneomenon
  3. Syndrome X is a term used to describe a constellation of metabolic derangements that includes insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, central or visceral obesity, endothelial dysfunction and accelerated cardiovascular disease
  4. KimmelsteilWilson nodules are charecteristic of Diabetic nephropathy . Nodules of pink hyaline material form in the regions of glomerular capillary loops in the glomerulus. This is due to a marked increase in mesangial matrix from damage as a result of non enzymatic glycosyslation of proteins.

One Comment

  1. Dr.Bijoy says:

    Answers posted!

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